The mechanical properties of a copper alloy can vary drastically depending on the thermal-mechanical processing of the alloy during production or post production of the material. The temper designation system is used for all forms of wrought and cast copper and copper alloy, except ingot. It is based on the sequences of basic treatments used to produce the various tempers. The temper designation follows the alloy designation, the two being separated by a hyphen. Basic temper designations consist of letters. Subdivisions of the basic tempers, where required, are indicated by one or more digits following the letter. These designate specific sequences of basic treatments, but only operations recognized as significantly influencing the characteristics of the product are indicated. If some other variation of the same sequence of basic operations is applied to the same alloy, resulting in different characteristics, additional digits are added to the designation.
The tables given below highlight the classification of tempers according to terminology used by manufactures of copper alloy and copper products in the US.
Annealed Tempers ‘OS’ series
OS-series tempers are designed to produce materials with specific standard or special grain size requirements by annealing.
|Average grain size, 0,005mm
|Average grain size, 0,010mm
|Average grain size, 0,015mm
|Average grain size, 0,025mm
|Average grain size, 0,035mm
|Average grain size, 0,050mm
|Average grain size, 0,060mm
|Average grain size, 0,070mm
|Average grain size, 0,100mm
|Average grain size, 0,120mm
|Average grain size, 0,150mm
|Average grain size, 0,200mm
Annealed Tempers ‘O’ series
O-series tempers are designed to produce materials with specific mechanical properties by annealing.
|Cast and annealed (homogenized)
|As-cast and precipitation heat treated
|Hot forged and annealed
|Hot rolled and annealed
|Hot extruded and annealed
|Extruded and precipitation heat treated
|Hot pierced and annealed
|Annealed to temper,1/8 hard
|Annealed to temper,1/4 hard
|Annealed to temper,1/2 hard
H-series tempers are designed to produce materials with specific quantities of stress-relieved, cold work and cold-worked (drawn) tempers, HR-tempers, order-strengthening tempers and HT-Tempers by cold working.
|Extruded and drawn
|Pierced and drawn
|Light drawn;light cold rolled
|Drawn general purpose
|Cold heading; forming
|Medium-hard-drawn electrical wire
|Hard-drawn electrical wire
|H01and stress relieved
|H02 and stress relieved
|H04and stress relieved
|H08 and stress relieved
|H10and stress relieved
|Drawn and stress relieved
|H04 and order heat treated
|H08 and order heat treated
M series tempers are designed to produce materials by manufacturing operations that include casting and hot working.
|As-pressure die cast
|As-permanent mold cast
|As-hot forged and air cooled
|As-forged and quenched
|As-hot pierced and rerolled
Solution Heat-Treated Temper
TB-series tempers are designed to produce materials with solution heat treating precipitation hardenable or spinodal hardenable alloys.
|Solution heat treated
TQ-series tempers are designed to produce materials by quench hardening treatments.
|Quench hardened and temper annealed
|Quench hardened and temper annealed cold drawn and stress relieved
|Interrupted quench hardened
Solution Heat-Treated and Cold-Worked Tempers
D-series tempers are designed to produce materials by controlled amounts of cold work of solution heat-treated precipitation hardenable or spinodal hardenable alloys.
|TB00 cold worked to 1/8 hard
|TB00 cold worked to 1/4 hard
|TB00 cold worked to 1/2 hard
|TB00 cold worked to 3/4 hard
|TB00 cold worked to full hard
Spinodal Heat Treated Temper
TX-series tempers are designed to produce materials by spinodal heat treatment of spinodal hardenable alloys.
Precipitation Heat-Treated Temper
F-series tempers are designed to produce materials by precipitation heat treatment of precipitation-hardenable alloys.
|TB00 and precipitation hardened
Cold-Worked and Precipitation Heat-Treated Tempers
TH-series tempers are designed in alloys that have been solution heat treated, cold worked, and precipitation heat treated.
|TD01 and precipitation hardened
|TD02 and precipitation hardened
|TD03 and precipitation hardened
|TD04 and precipitation
TM-series tempers are designed to produce heat-treated materials supplied by the mill resulting from combinations of cold work and precipitation heat treatment or spinodal heat treatment.
Cold Worked and Spinodal Heat Treated Tempers
TS-series tempers are produced in alloys that have been cold worked, spinodal heat treated and solution heat treated.
|1/8 hard and spinodal hardened (1/8 TS)
|1/4 hard and spinodal hardened (1/4 TS)
|1/2 hard and spinodal hardened (1/2 TS)
|3/4 hard and spinodal hardened (3/4 TS)
|Hard and spinodal hardened
|Extra hard and spinodal hardened
|Spring and spinodal hardened
|Extra spring and spinodal hardened
|Special spring and spinodal hardened
|Ultra spring and spinodal hardened
|Super spring and spinodal hardened
Precipitation Heat-Treated or Spinodal Heat-Treated, Cold-Worked, and Thermal Stress-Relieved Tempers
TR-series tempers are designed to be produced in spinodal heat-treated or cold-worked precipiation heat-treated alloys by thermal stress relief.
|TL01 and stress relieved
|TL02 and stress relieved
|TL04 and stress relieved
Precipitation Heat-Treated or Spinodal Heat-Treated and Cold-Worked Tempers
TL-series tempers are designed to be produced by cold working the spinodal heat-treated or precipitation heat-treated alloys.
|TF00 cold worked to 1/8 hard
|TF00 cold worked to 1/4 hard
|TF00 cold worked to 1/2 hard
|TF00 cold worked to full hard
|TF00 cold worked to spring
|TF00 cold worked to extra spring
Tube, Welded, Cold-Worked and Stress Relieved Tempers
WR-series tempers are designed as a result of forming, welding, cold working, and stress relieving when producing a tube.
|WM00; drawn and stress relieved
|WM01; drawn and stress relieved
|WM02; drawn and stress relieved
|WM03; drawn and stress relieved
|WM04; drawn and stress relieved
|WM06; drawn and stress relieved
Tube, Welded and Cold-Worked Tempers
WH-series tempers are designed as a result of forming, welding, and cold working when producing a tube.
|Welded and drawn to 1/8 hard
|Welded and drawn to 1/4 hard
|Welded and drawn to 1/2 hard
|Welded and drawn to 3/4 hard
|Welded and drawn to full hard
|Welded and drawn to extra hard
Tube, As-Welded Tempers
WM-series tempers are designed as a result of forming and welding when producing a tube.
|As welded from H00 (1/8-hard) strip
|As welded from H01 (1/4-hard) strip
|As welded from H02 (1/2-hard) strip
|As welded from H03 (3/4-hard) strip
|As welded from H04 (full-hard) strip
|As welded from H06 (extra-hard) strip
|As welded from H08 (spring) strip
|As welded from H010 (extra-spring) strip
|WM50 and stress relieved
|WM00 and stress relieved
|WM01 and stress relieved
|WM02 and stress relieved
|As welded from annealed strip